This article focuses on technology transfer for the development of the Tanzania national. In other words, this transfer of technology it focus on the following activities covering basic research, applied research, development, and even technical support for operational activities though development of the industry, this is our first mission activities when we focusing on the industry era. Non-mission-oriented research have their objectives defined primarily in scientific terms—for example, the study of high-energy physics, nuclear energy, toxic substances, atmospheric physics, and bioacoustics. Academic research is generally non-mission-oriented and is usually small-scale research carried out in academic departments of universities. Much of the technology transfer from non-mission-oriented research to application in real-life situations is likely to occur via a buffer industry similar to a mission-oriented R&D , and hence the focus on such national.
A new technology has to have considerable relative advantage and has to provide significant value to the customer before it is embraced by the wider user community. The new technology can be more expensive than the older technology, but the value in terms of quality, flexibility, and responsiveness it provides motivates the user to take the necessary steps in adopting this technology. In utilizing new technology, there are numerous management challenges. Continuous improvement is the basis of future competitive advantage for a firm.
Suggested five main steps leading to the adoption of technology:
Knowledge occurs when a potential user learns about the new technology and gains some understanding of its capabilities and usefulness. At this stage the user wants to know what the innovation is, what its capabilities are, and how it works.
Persuasion occurs when the user forms a favorable or an unfavorable attitude toward the innovation. Here the user is looking at comparative advantages and disadvantages of the innovation.
Decision occurs when the user engages in activities that lead to adoption or rejection of the innovation.
Implementation occurs when the user incorporates the innovation into the way of doing things.
Confirmation occurs when the user seeks to confirm the implementation decision and continues to use the innovation. This step is not always well understood, which is why many innovations first implemented are later discontinued. Certain activities to reinforce user acceptance of the innovation need to continue after implementation.
Adoption of innovation involves considerable uncertainty and thus some risk since it is not always clear what benefits will follow. Operational problems can often occur during the implementation stage, thus increasing costs and reducing benefits. Some of this uncertainty can be reduced by demonstration projects and by implementing the innovation on a partial basis. Organizations that do not reward prudent risk-taking are less likely to adopt innovations.
Adoption of innovation typically follows a bell curve, or an S-curve if considered cumulatively. Describes five categories of adopters. In general, early adopters are prudent risk-takers, are better informed and educated, and act as opinion leaders for the organization. The role of early adopters is to decrease the uncertainty about an innovation by adopting it and by adjusting it to fit the organization’s needs. Early adopters then communicate this information to other potential users within the organization and to peers outside the organization. The late majority and laggards adopt innovation last.
Successful adoption normally requires resources (people, funds, and time), some training in using the innovation, and, at times, some changes in the way organizations operate. This involves commitment to and acceptance of the innovation at both the individual and organizational levels. Organizational structure and its routine functioning provide stability and continuity to an organization. The adoption of innovation may seem to threaten this stability and continuity, and thus it is understandable that there often is some resistance to innovation. Some innovations may require manufacturing before they can be utilized by the ultimate user. For example, if the innovation involves a longer-lasting light bulb or a complex instrument to monitor toxic wastes, the device must first be manufactured.
Some innovations, such as computer systems, improved analysis procedures, or improved design criteria, can be transferred to the user without major intermediate steps. In both cases, before the innovation is implemented, the manufacturing department or the user has to become aware of the innovation and be persuaded to go on to the next steps: decision and implementation. During the early steps—knowledge and presentation—marketing people can play an important role. Marketing people may, for example, develop information brochures or demonstrations that capture the imagination of the users, motivating them to seek further information. As users move to the decision stage and beyond, the R&D group and other individuals intimately familiar with the innovation need to play the pivotal role.
APPROACHES AND FACTORS AFFECTING TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER
Three general approaches used by industrial research organizations to facilitate research utilization: These are the personnel approach, the organizational link-pins approach, and the procedural approach.
The Personnel Approach
The personnel approach involves movement of people, joint teams, and intensive person-to-person contact between the generator and the user of the research. Suppose an R&D group develops an intelligent and stand-alone air-pollution monitoring device that has a built-in microprocessor capable of real-time analysis. The innovation is complex, requiring some modifications or debugging during manufacturing. Some key members of the R&D group may be transferred to manufacturing to facilitate the process. The enthusiasm and keen insight of the R&D group can thus be transferred to manufacturing, increasing the probability of effective technology transfer.
The Organizational Link-Pins Approach
This encompasses specialized transfer groups that contain engineering, marketing, and financial skills; use of integrators who act as third-party transfer coordinators; and new venture groups. Some organizations may find that the movement of people creates other unacceptable personnel problems or is not economical. A special “technology transfer group” is formed to specialize in moving innovations from R&D to demonstration, to manufacturing, and to the ultimate user. It is important to recognize that a technology transfer group cannot consist of just a sales or public affairs office (PAO).
In one case we studied, the PAO was driving the train and results, predictably, were disappointing. After the initial knowledge and presentation stages, further activities quickly faded away. The PAO group did not have the technical understanding to successfully carry out other tech transfer activities. Even at the knowledge and persuasion stages, misleading and at times erroneous information was provided to the user groups. This further reduced the probability of success for the follow-up stages. For a technology-based innovation, it is essential that knowledgeable engineers and scientists play a leading role in the technology transfer group at all stages. As the technology moves to the decision stage and beyond, the PAO group’s role is minimal.
The Procedural Approach
This includes joint planning, joint funding, and joint appraisal of research projects using research and user groups from manufacturing and marketing. This procedural approach, which involves joint planning and participation in the innovation process by the user community, can be utilized quite effectively. User groups that include personnel from manufacturing, marketing, field users, corporate funding sponsors, and the research community can be organized for major R&D products. It is important to note that participants in these user groups still continue their normal duties. Their participation in the user group is an added responsibility. Researchers often comment on how many new ideas are generated as a result of their interaction with this user group. Such approaches require considerable organizational support, but the effort is worth the cost. In many cases, movement of people or formation of specialized technology transfer groups is simply not feasible due to organizational or cost considerations. Procedural approaches such as formation of user groups can serve as a tool for effective technology transfer without requiring movement of people or extra resources for establishing technology transfer groups. Procedural approaches can also be used to complement the other two approaches. The number of factors affecting technology transfer:
- National policies, laws, and regulations (e.g., taxes and tax credits, tariffs, and health and safety regulations)
- Corporate policies
- Market demand
- Scientific base of the nation and industry
- Level of R&D effort
- Education level
- Availability of capital
ROLE OF PEOPLE
The role of people in technology transfer has been well recognized. The existence of a technology gatekeeper, a person who links the organization to the outside world of scientific and technical knowledge, the two other gatekeepers—market gatekeeper and manufacturing gatekeeper—who have relevance to technology transfer.
The market gatekeeper is a communicator who understands what competitors are doing, what regulators might be up to, and what is happening with regard to the marketplace. This type of a gatekeeper brings vital information to the R&D organization and keeps the R&D research focus on target and toward the kinds of activities that are likely to be accepted and implemented successfully.
The manufacturing or operations gatekeeper understands enough of the practical and constrained environment of manufacturing and of the operations of the user community to keep the R&D personnel well informed about the manufacturing and operations requirements. This individual makes sure that the concepts developed by R&D can either be manufactured profitably or be made a part of the operation procedures of the user community.